GPI Home

Economic Indicators

Social Indicators

Environmental Indicators

GPI Details
Adjusted Personal Consumption Expenditure
Public & Non-Profit Provision of Goods/ Services
Built Capital Services
Social and Human Capital Services
Social Costs
Protected Areas Services
Local Pollution Costs
Depletion of Natural Capital

Calculating HI GPI

Hawai’i GPI Indicator Descriptions

Indicators colored green are added to GPI and red are subtracted from GPI

HI GPI Indic


GPI = U(PCE_ADJ + PP + KB + KS + KH – SC + KN – POL – DKN)

where PCE_ADJ = (PCE – DEFR – HI – CDE)*INQ


HI GPI formula and calculation in plain language: Hawai’i’s Genuine Progress Indicator (HI GPI) is a measure totaling the positive and negative impacts (Utility (U) or welfare) of market activity on the economy, society and environment. The calculation starts with Adjusted Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE_ADJ) which consists of the Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) minus Defensive and Regrettable Consumption Expenditures (-DEFR)*, Household Investments (-HI) for household repairs/maintenance & home improvement, savings, investment & retirement, charitable giving and higher & vocational education, since these investments will be added as services from human (+KH), social (+KS) and built capital (+KB) later. Similarly, Consumer Durables Expenditures (-CDE) are subtracted and added back as Consumer Durables Services (+CDS) within built capital (+KN) later, adjust this portion for income inequality. Now with Adjusted PCE (+PCE_ADJ) determined, then add the Public and Non-Public Provision of Goods and Services (+PP), services from Social (+KS), Human (+KH), Built (+KB), and Natural Capital (KN). Finally, remove Pollution Costs (-POL), Depletion of Natural Capital (-DKN) and Social Costs (-SC).

*Defensive and Regrettable Expenditures (DEFR) are backed out since these have zero or negative welfare effects.

Data Sources: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Bureau of Economic Analysis – U.S. Department of Commerce (BEA), State of Hawaiʻi Data Book, American Time Use Survey (ATUS), U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Transportation Statistics – U.S. Department of Transportation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Change Analysis Program (CCAP) and National Fish Habitat Risk Assessment, U.S. Geological Survey – Department of the Interior National Gap Analysis Program’s Protected Area’s Database PAD-US, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -Ecosystem Services Valuation Database (ESVD) and National Emissions Inventory (NEI), , Statistica, Office of Solid Waste Management Annual Reports – State of Hawaiʻi Department of Health, U.S. Energy Information Administration State Energy Data System (EIA SEDS), U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Continuum of Care Homeless Populations and Subpopulations Report, Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) Uniform Crime Reports Trend Series, National Highways Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), General Services Administration (GSA)


Hawaiʻi’s Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) Report 2022

HI GPI Calculation Excel Table Download